No other Major League players -- pitcher or otherwise -- have won as many Gold Gloves.
Maddux had been tied with Jim Kaat for the most Gold Gloves by a pitcher with 16 and with former Orioles third baseman Brooks Robinson.
Now Maddux stands alone.
"It's cool to win again," he said in a statement. "I'm fortunate to still be pitching at this level and honored to be recognized with this prestigious award."
Maddux, 14-11 with a 4.14 ERA for the Padres in 2007, won 13 consecutive Gold Gloves from 1990 to 2002, before Mike Hampton interrupted the streak.
"I think, more than anything, he has great baseball instincts when it comes to fielding a ball," Padres manager Bud Black said. "When he throws a pitch, he knows where the ball is going to be hit. It's amazing to see the plays he makes, but it doesn't surprise me.
"He has shown -- even at his age -- great reflexes. I'm sure they're not like they were when he was 20, but it's not that far off."
Rawlings has presented Gold Gloves annually since 1957, based on voting by managers and coaches before the end of the regular season. They may not select players on their own teams, and they vote only for players in their own league.
Maddux made 34 starts and posted a .986 fielding percentage, making one error in 71 total chances. He ranked among National League hurlers in total chances (second), assists (first with 51) and double plays (tied for third with five).
Maddux, who will be entering his 23rd Major League season, has 347 career victories, which put him ninth on baseball's career victory list.
Other National League recipients of Gold Gloves were catcher Russell Martin (Dodgers), first baseman Derrek Lee (Cubs), second baseman Orlando Hudson (Diamondbacks), shortstop Jimmy Rollins (Phillies), third baseman David Wright (Mets) and outfielders Carlos Beltran (Mets), Andruw Jones (Braves), Jeff Francoeur (Braves) and Aaron Rowand (Phillies). There are four outfielders because of a tie in the voting.
Corey Brock is a reporter for MLB.com. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.